Swings & Roundabouts
in Child Care Policy & Practice Fifty Years 1948 -1998
Barbara Kahan OBE
1998 was 50 years on from the date when post ward child care
legislation took us out of the austere and chilly climate of
the Poor Law in relation to needy children into a potentially
warmer, kinder setting. The Children Act 1948 was part of a large
post war legislative package which included major changes in
education and the establishment of the NHS and laid the foundation
for a modern child care service. Between 1948 and the 1980s so
much additional legislation was added, dealing with adoption,
preventive work, young offenders and many other issues that by
1983 a Parliamentary Select Committee was given the task of examining
it and recommending future action. It had become so complicated
that practitioners and others were handicapped in its use and
I was privileged to act as adviser to that Select Committee -
an experience which enabled me to see MPs working in a more constructive
cross party team than is ever visible in the noisy interchange
of the House of Commons itself.
The Children Act 1989 was the result of the Select Committee's
deliberations and was also much influenced by the Cleveland Inquiry
and latterly, actually while in its passage through Parliament,
by abuse scandals in boarding education. It now forms the structure
within which child care services operate increasingly geared
to the sharp end of problems rather than to the broader approach
which includes preventive work.
- Swings and roundabouts in child care policy and practice in
substitute child care
There are basically two major kinds of substitute care - residential
care and foster care.
Children's Officers, in 1948, inherited archaic residential establishments
- some appalling - others not too bad by the standards of the
time. Their task was to change those which were retained and
to open fresh ones modelled on a child centred concept - smaller
scale, better staffing, training for staff, focus on individual
children's needs including better food, clothing, pocket money,
activities, holidays, as much like other children as possible.
Centuries of prejudice against the "undeserving poor"
met the campaigning fervour and innovatory approaches of a new
breed of staff in local government - and some very considerable
and desirable changes were made in spite of many mistakes. A
large home then was 30 beds; family units of 8-10 were common;
residential nurseries in Poor Law buildings were closed; training
courses were set up nationally for residential staff even before
those for field social workers.
There was, however, from the start a built in prejudice against
group care in the Children Act 1948. Although there was little
research available in the 1940s one way or the other, the Curtis
Committee had decided that in their view foster care was much
better for children in care because it was more like family life
- and they strongly recommended it. Nevertheless they urged that
it should be used with discretion and that if a child had to
change foster homes more than once or twice it might be better
if he had not been fostered at all because of the damage suffered
from change and rejection.
In spite of this when their
report was embodied in law an emphasis was put on fostering such
that group care should only be used if it were impractical or
unsuitable for the time being to use a foster home. Considerable
pressure was put on Children's Departments in the 1950s by the
Home Office Inspectorate to "board out" (foster) and
by the early 1960s breakdown rates had become so high that the
Children's Officers set up a research study themselves. They
found that insufficient choice was being offered and that a better
balance between residential and foster care was needed. Some
of the pressure from Central Government had undoubtedly been
fuelled by a Select Committee on Estimates in 1950 which urged
that fostering should be used as much as possible since not only
was it best - but it was also cheaper! There is still a strong
economic motivation, I believe, amongst policy makers although
research can now demonstrate that the thinking behind this assumption
is frequently flawed.
Before 1969 there
was a separate residential system, in which most establishments
were large by comparison with child care units elsewhere - the
approved school system mainly for young offenders. This was quite
separate from the local authority service and subject to different
management and different inspection by the Home Office. It was
strongly male dominated, generally authoritarian in its climate,
and a direct descendant of the former reformatories. Some schools
were better that that suggests - but some were schools in which
thrashing was common - some are now seen to have been centres
in which other forms of abuse were also not uncommon.
By 1969 various strands of
thinking and pressure groups concerned that there should be a
better way of dealing with young offenders resulted in the Children
& Young Persons Act 1969 which brought the approved schools,
much against their wishes in many cases, into the local authority
child care service. They proved to be difficult establishments
to manage, accustomed to having their own Board of Governors,
accountable direct to the Home Office, not through a local authority
Chief Officer, and with the Heads often being paid as much, if
not more than their new bosses, the Children's Officers - a difficult
situation on both sides.
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The schools were renamed Community Homes with education on the
premises (CHEs). A year or two later the implementation of the
Seebohm Report in 1970 brought together Children's Departments
along with Welfare Departments and other divided welfare services
in local authorities into Social Services Departments and the
former approved schools with them.
Meanwhile in the Home Office
Children's Department action had been taken to try to help these
residential establishments to change, and become more like the
kind of service local authority child care had been trying to
provide. A Development Group was set up and carried out a great
deal of work to improve residential child care across the board.
Care and Treatment in a Planned Environment was a major report
of this project.
Recently a book called "Child Care Revisited: Children's
Departments 1948-1971" by Bob Holman has been published.
His objective views of what children's departments achieved is
summed up in 6 points:-
- They were a great improvement
on what had preceded them.
- They provided a form of care
which was personal in its approach to children.
- They restored many children
to their natural parents.
- They encouraged and facilitated
the growth of trained staff.
- They established that local
authorities could run an efficient, caring and personal service.
- They helped to push some of
the older voluntary agencies into achieving change too.
Their limitations included
o inadequate numbers of staff
o inadequate choices of substitute care
o too few qualified residential staff
o too little care and support for care leavers - and over 18s
o failure to tackle ethnic issues.
Nevertheless Bob Holman believes that between 1948 and 1971 child
care services were revolutionised.
The new Social Services Departments were established in 1971.
They had only been in action for 3 years when the reorganisation
of local government, in 1974, threw the whole situation up in
the air again. There were major upheavals which led to fewer
and much larger departments, very long management structures,
sometimes 7,8,9 layers from the top to the bottom - with consequent
communication and other related problems.
By this time, too, the short period of resources affluence which
Social Services initially experienced was coming to an end -
and the strong swing against residential care, temporarily abated,
began again. The permanency movement in the United States, which,
without doubt, had an economic element in it, was popular in
Britain and the build up to promote foster care as an almost
universal panacea with a much reduced residential sector only
to be used as a last resort was beginning.
This was reinforced by the factor of changes in operational organisation
of social work and in training. Operationally many departments
adopted a version of Seebohm's philosophy which Lord Seebohm
always said his committee did not intend. This system insisted
on most social workers carrying generic caseloads - i.e. something
of everything - a few elderly people, mentally ill, disabled,
children and young people - a kind of social work general practice
- only without the specialist services available to GPs in medicine.
At the same time by about 1974 all the former specialist training
courses were closed and became generic. It is worth spending
a minute of two to unpick that because I believe it has had a
very major impact on many developments since.
Before 1974 there were quite a large number of courses which
taught child care field social workers and other courses which
trained people for residential child care. Some were 2 years
in length and while short enough, they nevertheless concentrated
for 2 years on the knowledge base, theory and practice about
children and young people and for residential care.
When these courses were changed - the time available for training
was not increased. Instead, students were expected to train in
relation to the total spectrum of age groups and problems which
Social Services exist to serve. Similarly, instead of courses
with an emphasis and special experience and knowledge of residential
work being available, some of which had been very valuable, people
wishing to train for residential care had to do so on the same
course as field social workers. After 25 years of this it is
now widely acknowledged that major changes are needed and that
neither field nor residential staff currently receive the length
or depth of training needed for the intensely difficult tasks
and problems they have to tackle. The residential staff have
particularly missed out.
The years from the mid 1970s onwards have seen a steady decline
in residential child care provided by local authorities and large
national voluntary organisations. Most of the former approved
schools have closed down - and there has been very little established
to take their place.
The consequences have been that foster care has been used to
an extent which, I believe, has been unrealistic and has led
to many problems, including lack of choice, frequent moves of
children from place to place, and consequent instability damaging
to their education, mental health and self regard.
Numbers of children "looked after" or "accommodated"
have also fallen dramatically - and the present position is approximately
50,000 in total "looked after" of whom less than 8,000
are in residential care - most of it provided in units
of less than 10 beds.
Children's Departments between 1948-1970 had dealt with cases
of cruelty, physical abuse, incest (as we often called it) -
and children who suffered a wide range of abuse from families
in particular. The Children's Officers Association began to collect
cases of abuse which they were concerned should be better understood
- through their National Bulletin in the 1960s. Under the Children
and Young Persons Act 1963 it was the duty of Children's Departments
to investigate cases in which a child appeared to have been neglected
or was suffering harm.
Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England
Dr. Louise A. Jackson
Great difficulty was sometimes
experienced in getting doctors, police, and lawyers to believe
what was happening. There was not much clarity about what might
be happening in group care - the kind of thing which Fred Fever
describes in his book as we now know undoubtedly happened - and
I personally had so much unease about the kinds of regimes in
approved schools that in the authority I was serving we somehow
managed to persuade the courts not to send children to approved
schools but to commit them to our care.
But there was little public discussion about abuse - other than
scandals about excessive corporal punishment - e.g. in Court
Lees Approved School, - and the occasional knowledge of someone
being moved on for sexually inappropriate behaviour to boys or
We now know from disclosures leading to an immense amount of
inquiry work of various kinds that sexual abuse - accompanied
by other forms of abuse was widespread in some residential settings.
Its incidence in foster care was unknown and is only now beginning
to be looked at.
By the 1960s the concept of non-accidental injury was slowly
penetrating our national consciences. Dr Kempe in the United
States had been leading the way - his book "The Battered
Child" published in Chicago and London in 1968 - was a bench
mark. He set the tone of debate and some of the messages given
- All 50 states of the US had
passed laws providing for mandatory reporting of suspected cases
of child abuse - it was claimed that "tens of thousands
of children were severely battered or killed in the USA in 1967"
- Many parents consider children
have a duty to satisfy the parents' emotional needs.
- A multidisciplinary approach
was essential to dealing with abuse - e.g. paediatricians, social
workers, lawyers, police.
- Over the centuries parents
have been considered to have a right to beat their children.
- Over the centuries children
have been victims of mutilation processes - e.g. of sex organs,
foot binding, cranial deformation, - often for purposes of begging
- still not uncommon in some parts of the world.
- Infanticide used to be the
right of parents - 80% of illegitimate children put out to nurse
in London during the 19th century died. This was the origin of
legislation called "Child Life Protection". Not till
1908 was visiting of such cases required.
- Well known story of the first
case taken to court by the NSPCC - on the basis that the child
was a member of the animal kingdom - because there was no law
to protect children - only animals.
The "Battered Child"
Syndrome which Kempe identified was a discovery due to paediatric
X-ray in 1946 - by 1955 trauma wilfully inflicted was noted.
In 1961 Dr Kempe conducted
a symposium on the problem of child abuse at the American Academy
of Paediatrics and the "Battered Child Syndrome" became
part of our knowledge base.
I have a very vivid recollection of trying to persuade both police
officers and general practitioners that some of the cases my
department was referring were "non-accidental" and
experiencing open scepticism and reluctance to act in some instances.
By the late 1960s messages were percolating through from the
US again about recognition of sexual abuse of children. It was
predictable that it would be as difficult to gain credibility
for sexual abuse of children as it had been for non-accidental
It proved to be so.
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I did a small literature search recently for some current work
I was engaged in. I could find little explicit discussion of
sexual abuse until late 1970s/early 1980s. But two well known
books by English writers made the problem clear -
David Wills - "Spare the
Child" - 1971 - reported gross and widespread sexual abuse
between boys in the Cotswold Approved School.
Royston Lambert - "The Hothouse Society" - 1968 - demonstrated
that sexuality is a major issue in one sex schools. A notable
example in the book was of a housemaster getting his spectacles
to enable him to watch the boys more clearly while they showered!
Although sexual abuse was not
recognised as a major problem for children's service providers
until the 1980s, the position now, as we all know, is that -
- We recognise 90% of abuse
takes place in children's own homes - or is carried out by people
- We now recognise that not
only has sexual abuse been going on in residential settings,
children's homes, boarding schools, hospital units - for a long
time - but that we have to accept it also takes place in a variety
of other places -
A few examples are:-
foster homes, day nurseries, sports training activities, religious
The perpetrators include:
priests, sports coaches, doctors, teachers, nurses, directors
of social services, trainee nursery nurses, volunteers - the
range is as wide as the opportunities for adults to have unprotected
access to children.
We are now so concerned about the problem that our media regard
it as hot news; paedophiles are at risk in communities and have
to have police protection; and in practical terms very considerable
amounts of time and resources are being consumed daily in police,
social services and residential settings including in carrying
out agreed procedures which arise as soon as "an incident"
occurs. This may be a serious assault, or may also be an example
of the age related experimentation which goes on between young
people - particularly in circumstances where they are under continuous
monitoring such as boarding schools or children's homes.
What have we
In my bullet points given to assist the programme notes I undertook
to suggest some of the lessons we have learned from the past
- from inquiries, research and victims' experience.
When I started going through my collection of reports, books
and documents gleaned over the years, particularly from the 1980s
and 1990s - I rapidly filled a Sainsbury shopping box with inquiry
reports (one of my ways of keeping sane in a flood of paper)
- and in the short time available I can only pick out one or
two points which may be helpful today.
A list of selected publications and events which may be a useful
reminder of how much there is, is attached to this paper.
I am going to draw briefly from 4 sources:-
- The Department of Health report on inquiries - 1973-81
- The Pindown Experience and the Protection of Children 1991
- Leicestershire Inquiry 1992
- Newcastle Inquiry 1998
The following are pointers to
the reports' findings.
- A Study of Inquiry Reports 1973 - 1981
Para 2.2 "The general picture of practice emerging from
the reports is not of gross error or failures by individuals
on single occasions but of a confluence or succession of errors,
together with the adverse effects of circumstantial factors beyond
the control of those involved." These included training
and experience, supervision, staffing and recruitment, accommodation
and administrative support and the impact of three major reorganisations.
- A child's demeanour may or
may not provide a clue
- Sometimes children tell someone
of abuse directly though not necessarily a professional
- A child's message may not
be clear, for a variety of reasons, not least because children
are inclined to give up if their messages are not well received.
- Children cannot be relied
upon to challenge explanations offered by parents or parent figures
especially when the latter are present.
- Sometimes children may try
to communicate through actions rather than words (e.g. running
- Direct communication with
children is extremely important - but may be difficult when they
have conflicting and fluctuating feelings.
Evaluation of complaints:
Sometimes difficult to assess.
Need to be promptly and thoroughly investigated.
Para 2.62 Communication: "Every
report reveals problems in some aspect of communication between
individuals and agencies."
Para 2.66 Recording: "Efficiency in recording, transmitting
and storing information is an essential and integral part of
Para 2.67 "simply writing things down is not enough - what
is recorded must preserve all relevant information in an unambiguous
Accessibility of records,
Storage (filing going missing),
Proper use of records were also issues of note.
- Staff selection - little understanding
of the nature of the task by managers - "sloppy" internal
- Measures of control - inadequately
monitored and scrutinised.
- Inadequate recording of daily
- External visitors - should
have previous six monthly reports available beforehand. Some
visits should be made without notice.
- Need for designated source
of information about possible sex offenders to be available at
- Check on people taking young
persons in lodgings (a sex offenders' opportunity).
- Proper complaints procedure
for staff, foster parents and children.
- Residential homes advisers
- to have appropriate experience and training.
- Adequate supervision system.
- Strategy of training - managers
who were critical of practice had been frowned on.
- Residential work was undervalued
and its objectives not clear.
- Inadequate numbers of staff
for the task - one member of staff alone on duty at night.
- Selection methods should include
means of revealing character, personality, knowledge and skills.
- Inadequate staff selection.
- Inadequate attention to available
knowledge and expertise related to therapeutic methods.
- Management thought it was
getting expensive methods "on the cheap".
- Absence of policy of openness
and good child care.
- "Woolly" management
style in care branch.
- Records poor - communication
poor - no impetus for change.
- Roles and purposes of residential
units - unclear and not defined.
- No strategic approach to provision
of residential care.
- Inadequate attention to training.
- Ineffectual monitoring of
- Warning signs not heeded.
- Management vacuum.
- Complaints did not prompt
- A general predisposition not
to believe children.
- Over valuing of the trained
manager Frank Beck (compare also Tony Latham in Pindown) - scarce
commodity - "don't upset him".
- Abuse in Early Years
- Training. Records of training
people to work with children should be retained for long periods.
- Possibility of abuse should
be included in syllabus for nursery and early years training
- Training and recruitment.
Clear comprehensive framework of qualifications across whole
sector - and child protection to be taken into account in:
education and training, recruitment, vetting, selection and employment
of child care workers and training to be given about how abusers
- All candidates for jobs should
fully complete an application form - with full details - including
- Staffing records should be
kept meticulously showing clearly where staff have worked.
- All disciplinary papers should
be retained in personnel files - even when results spent.
- Internal promotions should
be subjected to same rigorous scrutiny as external appointments.
- The Pigot report should be
more fully implemented and legal system be less adversarial in
relation to children.
- Need for "whistle blowing"
- Possibility of abuse by female
as well as male staff should be explored in in-service training
for professionals within ACPC area (Area Child Protection Committee)
May be presumptuous of me to attempt to offer this but nevertheless
it may be helpful:
- Much of our knowledge of how
victims perceive abuse during the time it is happening comes
from evidence like police statements, records of interviews and
inquiries. Some of those abused out of home situations were there
because they had been abused at home - others placed for quite
minor reasons - or because they needed care.
Feelings of betrayal, fear, shock and devastation are common.
For young children fight or flight is not an option. At home
- fears may include break up of the family - need to protect
younger children or mother.
- Physical pain is common -
with physical results like bleeding, piles, bruising.
Humiliation - disgust.
Difficulty in describing what has happened.
Mental pain accompanying physical pain and disgust.
- Despair, anger, revulsion,
depression, loneliness and helplessness. Fred Fever's book page
47. "The pain of rape/sexual abuse goes not only through
the body and mind but reaches down into the depth of your soul."
- Transferred fault -
Tim Tate in Child Pornography - an Investigation
A child molester told US Senate Enquiry -
"Do they cry or fight off my advances? Usually not. Remember
in the child's mind they think they are as guilty as I am. They
boys and girls don't do this, so they must
not be good children. They are overwhelmed with shame much of
the time and simply comply with the wishes of the adult."
- Long term effects can include:
frightened of having own children
cannot work with men or e.g. share showers, cells in prison
cannot work in a team
uncertain of own sexuality
anti-authority, lose jobs and opportunities as a result
long term physical problems e.g. internal piles
inability to tell anyone for years the terrible secret - including
Recently there has been The Government's Response to the Children's
Safeguards Review, November 1998.
Children's Safeguards Review recommendations include:
Regulate all small private children's homes.
Regulate all independent fostering agencies.
Register and approve all private foster carers.
Extend welfare inspection (1989 Act) to all boarding schools
(revise dual registration as a school and a home for some.).
Simplify complaints and closure procedures for Independent Schools.
Protect disabled children in care homes, nursing homes and hospices.
Establish General Social Care Council to regulate professionals.
(Most of these are either now in train or subject of proposals.)
Further very recent items for the list of publications and events
Protection of Children Bill
- Debate on 26 Feb 1999
Home Office - Interdepartmental Working Group on Preventing Unsuitable
People Working with Children and Abuse of Trust - 25 Feb 1999
Home Office Draft Guidance on Children Involved in Prostitution
- 17 Dec 1998
Modernising Social Services - Dept of Health - Services for Children,
protection, quality of care, improving life chances.
Some solutions for central and local government - relevant professional
groups - training bodies.
I have already indicated many of these in ground covered already
Central Government should -
- Carry out Response to the
- Improve social work and residential
- Provide strong inspection
- Build on new initiative of
listening to children and young people
- Encourage in various ways
- Fund research on paedophiles
and related issues
Local Government should -
- Redress the seriously flawed
approach to residential child care - not just their own - but
its use generally, including taking training seriously.
- Use proper staff selection
including multi faceted selection process
o contacting previous employers
o rigorous vetting checks.
- Be more realistic about the
capacity of fostering.
- Develop joint training and
activities between residential staff and foster carers.
- Insist on managerial posts
involved in decision making and monitoring residential care having
appropriate experience and training.
- Carry out realistic costings
of various methods of care (see Martin Knapp's research - on
- Insist on proper communication
between field and residential social workers.
- Within social work the often
unthinking prejudice against group care needs to be confronted.
- Social workers need to press
for better training facilities - e.g. at least an extra year
and more post qualifying training and training in understanding
and addressing some specific areas of interpersonal behaviour
- e.g. heterosexual sexuality in cohabitation, children's sexuality,
knowledge of sexual aberrations.
- Development of specialist
resources for supervision and staff development whilst in post.
- Development of interdisciplinary
activities and understanding
o between doctors, lawyers, social workers, teachers, nurses,
- Development of greater understanding
between social workers and teachers.
- Many of the previous points
imply development of various kinds of training - both full time
and within the context of working jobs.
- Trainers selecting students
need to be selecting as rigorously as staff in post should be
- When these various changes
are taking place - it is important to carry the trainers with
them. Currently some trainers in social work perpetuate old prejudices
against group care - and sometimes lack understanding of the
context in which people do their work.
Note to readers
This paper has attempted, probably unwisely, to scan a very wide
field. It has inevitably dealt very briefly with many points
which deserve much fuller discussion. Any bias is therefore the
responsibility of the writer. It includes some material which
had been prepared but due to shortage of time had to be omitted
from the spoken delivery.
Appendix to the above paper given at the inaugural conference
of the Association of Child Abuse Lawyers, Cambridge University,
"FIFTY YEARS" SWINGS
AND ROUNDABOUTS IN CHILD CARE
(with particular relevance to child abuse)
POLICY AND PRACTICE
BARBARA KAHAN OBE
Report of Sir Walter Monckton
QC on the death of a foster child Dennis O'Neill (Shropshire)
Report of the Care of Children
Committee (Curtis Report)
Children Neglected and Ill treated
in their own home Joint Circular Home Office, Ministry of Health
and Ministry of Education
Children & Young Persons (Amendment)
Symposium at American Academy
of Paediatrics conducted by Dr C. Henry Kempe on the "Battered
Children & Young Persons Act
"The Battered Child"
edited by Ray E. Helfer and C. Henry Kempe - University of Chicago
Press Chicago and London
"The Hothouse Society"
Royston Lambert (a study of boarding school life)
"Residential; Care - Castle
Priory Report (published by professional child care associations)
Children & Young Persons Act
Local Authority Social Services
Act (implementation of the Seebohm report)
"Spare the Child" David
Wills (Cotswold Community)
Care and treatment in a Planned
Environment - Report of the Community Homes Project - Home Office
Committee of Inquiry into the
death of Graham Baynall (Shropshire)
Committee of Inquiry into the
death of Maria Colwell (East Sussex)
Committee of Inquiry - Stephen
Committee of Inquiry - John Auckland
Committee of Inquiry - Lisa Godfrey
(Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham)
Committee of Inquiry - Richard
Committee of Inquiry - Neil Howlett
Committee of Inquiry - Wayne Brewster
Committee of Inquiry - Karen Spencer
Committee of Inquiry - Stephen
Committee of Inquiry - Darryn
Committee of Inquiry - Lester
Chapman (Berkshire & Hampshire)
Committee of Inquiry - Maria Mehmedazi
(Southwark, Lambeth and Lewisham)
Committee of Inquiry - Lucy Oates
Report of Inquiry - Jasmine Beckford
(London Borough of Brent)
Kincora Inquiry - Northern Ireland
Draft guidance on "Working
Report of Inquiry Kimberly Carlisle
(London Borough of Greenwich)
Report of Inquiry - T.Henry (London
Borough of Lambeth)
Report of Inquiry into Child Abuse
in Cleveland. Chair Rt.Hon.Lord Justice Butler-Sloss
"Working Together" DHSS
Castle Hill School Investigation
Crookham Court School Investigation
Children Act (to be implemented
Publication of updated "Working
"Child Pornography - An investigation
Tim Tate (Methuen)
Publication of Children Act 1989
Regulations and Guidance
Volume 4 - Residential Care
Volume 5 - Independent Schools
The Pindown Experience and the
Protection of Children - Allan Levy QC and Barbara Kahan (Staffordshire)
Child Abuse - A Study of Inquiry
Reports 1980-1989 Department of Health
"What we know and don't know"
- Residential Care for Children - Roger Bullock, Dartington Social
Ty Mawr Community Home Inquiry
- Gareth Williams QC and John Mcready
The Right to Complain - Practice
Guidance on Complaints, Department of Health
Working with Child Sexual Abuse
- Guidance for Trainers and Managers in SSDs Department of Health
Children in the Public Care -
Sir William Utting (Response to Pindown)
Reviews of Children's Homes in
Scotland (Response to Pindown)
1991/92 Investigation concerning St.Charles Youth Treatment Centre
SSI Department of Health
The Leicestershire Inquiry - Andrew
"Choosing with Care"
Report of the Warner Committee on Staff Selection
A Review of Malcolm Thompson's
Employment for the Sheffield City Council 1977
Inquiry into Suicides in Feltham
- Chair Anthony Scrivenor QC
Evaluating Performance in Child
Protection - Social Services Practice and Systems, SSI and Department
"Not Just a Name" The
Views of Young People in Foster and Residential Care - National
Report of Inspection of the Youth
Treatment Service - SSI/Department of Health
"A Place Apart" - An
investigation into the handling and outcomes of serious injuries
to children and other matters at Aycliffe Centre for Children,
County Durham SSI/Department of Health
Residential Care for Children
- A Review of the Research, Department of Health
Multiple abuse in Nursery Classes
- Inquiry in Newcastle Upon Tyne
"Growing up in Groups"
Barbara Kahan HMSO
"Banged Up, Beaten Up, Cutting
Up" - Violence in Penal Institutions for Teenagers under
18 - Helena Kennedy QC
Undated, Working with Child Sexual
abuse - Guidelines for Training Social Services Staff - training
and support Programme (Child Care) Department of Health
"Child Abuse in Wales"
Miss Nicola Davies QC
Inquiry in the Management of Child
Care in Islington, Ian White CBE and Kate Hart
"People Like Us" Sir
William Utting (Children's Safeguards Review)
Abuse in Early Years - Report
of the Independent Complaints Review Team on Shieldfield Day
Nursery and Related Matters - Newcastle Upon Tyne
National Children's Bureau Highlights
(Research and Practice) summaries of child care matters include:
No.7 Non-accidental injuries in
No.50 Child Sexual Abuse and Incest
No.80 Child Abuse
No.119 Child Sexual Abuse
Nos.113&134 Introduction to
Residential Child Care Parts I and II
No.159 Child Abuse and Child Protection
in Residential Care